What is DNA
(Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)?
DNA is the genetic material in the cells of the body. Each cell in the human body consists of 46 chromosomes. The male sperm cells and the female cells each consist of 23 chromosomes. Thus a child gets half of its genetic material from its biological father, and the other half from its biological mother. This means that each individual carries his or her own individual DNA chromosome that is unique and different from any other human being's DNA, with the exception to identical twins who have identical DNA.
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The genetic material, DNA, is identical in all of the cells of the body. Rubbing the inside of the cheek with a testing stick provides the material that is to be tested. In this way cells come off from the mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek, and these cells stick onto the testing stick. This is a painless procedure since the testing stick is covered with synthetic fibres. The procedure of rubbing the inside of the cheek with a testing stick has to be done on both the father and the child or children. To the present day, there is no other reliable method available than the DNA test when determining paternity.
How the analysis of the DNA
material is performed?
The testing stick with the DNA material will be sent to a laboratory. Here the upper part of the testing stick (where the DNA material has stuck) will be cut to pieces with the aid of an enzyme; this is performed on a monocular level. The DNA fragments are then placed in a gel, and a low-power current is applied to the gel. The low-power current then lead the DNA fragments to one of the poles. The smallest fragments are transported furthest, and the largest fragments are transported the shortest way. In this way the DNA fragments are being assorted.
After this the fragments are transmitted to a membrane where they are united with DNA markers. The markers can be identified and attach to a certain part of the individual's DNA material. The membrane is placed onto a photographic film, which is developed and a picture of small black DNA strings comes out. All of the DNA strings have a unique pattern and can then be compared to the father's DNA strings. An accuracy of 99,999 is obtained by this test.
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